Themoelectrically induced giant magnetic flux

In the year 2004 in his Nobel prize winning lecture Ginzburg was drawing attention to at that time unsolved problem of giant themoelectrically induced magnetic flux.

In the paper:
Thermopower in superconductors: Temperature dependence of magnetic flux in a bimetallic loop :
J. Koláček, P. Lipavský,
Phys. Rev. B 71, 092503 (2005)

we succeeded to show, that if the distinction between electrochemical and electrostatic potential is properly taken into account, giant thermomagnetic flux follows from the conventional matching of internal potentials.

The picture shows thermally induced magnetic flux in a toroid. The dots are the experimental data of Van Harlingen, Heidel, and Garland,  the lines are calculated using the formula we have derived.

For theoretical calculation we used temperature dependence of superfluid density according to:
Gorter-Casimir two fluid model:  green line
BCS theory: blue line


Giant themoelectrically induced magnetic flux: